Lee GM, Kleinman K, Soumerai SB, et al. Effect of nonpayment for preventable infections in US hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012 Oct 11;367(15):1428-1437.
This study examined rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) deemed preventable by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), such as catheter-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonias. The authors observed declining rates of HAIs before the CMS nonpayment incentive was enacted and did not detect any specific impact the policy is having on further decline.